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In California  ater proposition ab 109 there was a so called realignment of certain crimes.  These are mostly non-violent offenses or offenses that are specifically assigned to what is commonly referred to as local time.



Section 1170H requires the following crimes be punished in the county jai.  

crimes where the statute specifically states the crime is punishable under 1170 h.  the length of the term is 16 months 2 or 3 years in the local jail.  

or any offense that is non serious non non violent and non sex related. 


example 459 commerical burglary

vc 2800.4 aggravated evading a police officer 

possession of Marijuana

this is certainly not a complete list.



Certain categories of crimes that are considered violent or serious.  The purpose behind ab 109 was to deal with low level and low-risk offenders.  not people considered to be dangerous to the community.  

for example

Violent Felonies under Penal Code section 667.5 c and offenses where the defendant has a prior conviction for one of these type of crimes. 



And offenses where the defendant has a prior conviction for one of the seious felonies under 1192.7

Certain Sex Crimes 

Certain aggravated white collar crimes pusuant to Penal Code section 186.11

This is not an exhaustive list and there are approximately 60 other crimes that the legislature has decided to exclude for a more complete list see the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation Final Crime Exclusion List. 

If you have any further questions call us at 559 -441-1418.


When you have been arrested for a crime you must either post bond or be realeased on pretrial release or your own recognizance.  I will go over the pretrial release and or release in other blog post.  In previous blog post I went over how to bail someoene out of jail and in this post  I will address briefly address what the court considers as to whether to release someone on bail or reduce bail, and how a strike affects that process and what lawyers refer to as 654 issues.



The court will mainly consider two factors as to wheter to grant or reduce bail.


The court will conisider what the persons ties are to the community, how long has the person resided in this particular community.  And what ties does he have is he deeply entrenched in the community so that he is less likely to bail the jurisdiction if released on bond.  Do you coach soccer? have you worked a job for a long period of time?  etc.


Are there allegations of violence or guns? was someone injured? are you a member of a gang.  All of these things are taken into consideration when the Judge makes a decision as to your bail.  The Judge must take into consideration what is in the police reports and take them as the truth.  However,  I have had this work to my advantage people, even lawyers often assume that everything that is in the police report will be detrimental to there client.  This is not true. We had officers willing to testify under sub at a bond hearing based upon favorable facts in the police reports indicating self defense etc. 


654 is the penal code that states in part that you can be convicted of the same crime but you cannot be sentenced for the same crime.  An easy example of this is the driving under the influence statutes.  You can be convicted of both the a and b count under vehicle code section 23152 however, you cannot be punished for both crimes only one.

Now how this affects bail is that if you are charged with a bunch of crimes that are jacking your bail way up.  The court can take into consideration the fact you are charged with duplicate crimes which are driving your bail way up.  This is believe it or not, not a requirement but may be taken into consideration.


Every strike on your record amounts to an increase of $100,000. so even if you are charged with an underlying crime of only a five thousand dollar bail amount the amount will be increased by the 100 thousand amount per strike. 

You must be aware that when you go to a bail bondsman the amount of your original bond may be wrong for several reasons.

bail bondsman will not count the enhancments such as strikes gang enhancements etc,  before making your bond, therefore, you may have a bond that is much lower than what the Judge will accept because the bondsman did not propertly calculate the amount.

The District Attorneys office may charge different charges than what you were arrested on.

For example you hit someone with a bat, they are in a coma you are charged with battery and bail out. The person later dies.  You will have to bail out on the Murder not the Batter.  This is just one example.

You should see an Attorney before you bail somoene out or rely on bail schedules.  If you have any questions don't hesitate to call.  559-441-1418


If you or a loved one has been arrested for any Homicide or Murder related offense you should definitely call our office.  Even before any questioning has happened.  You should seek representation as to what your options are, and what your defenses are before making a decision to speak to the police. 

Many people think that if they do not talk to the police that they could be in some type of trouble.  There still is a Constitution in this country and you can choose not to talk to the government in the form of the police if you choose to remain silent.   That silence cannot be used against you in a court of law period.

Also, when choosing a Homicide Attorney please hire an experienced Attorney.  Someone that has done Homicide cases.   In some of my earlier blogs I have discussed the defenses to Homicide.   Here, in this blog, I will be discussing just the different levels of Homicide. First, the most serious which could lead to the Death Penalty.  Again hiring the local DUI guy will not be good enough for Homicide representation, ask if the Attorney if they are death qualified, have done murder cases, how many Murder trials to verdict, how long have they been an Attorney.  These are the type of questions you should ask.


These are the most serious and can lead to the Death Penalty.  The prosecution does not always choose to seek the death penalty in a special circumstances case and may instead opt for a plea to life without the chance of parole.

To be found guilty of this type of murder.  You must not only be found guilty of Murder but the added special circumstances must be found true.  Such as Murder of  Police officer, Murder of more than one person etc. There are many more.


Is a Murder with Premiditation and Deliberation and done as a result of a rash impulse.


Second degree murder is a murder done with Malice.  either expressed through actions which show an intent to kill.  Such as shooting someone with a gun in the head at close range.

or an implied malice the physical part whch is doing an act inherently dangerous to human life, 2. the mental element which is acting in reckless disregard to that danger.

As to the Mansluaghter crimes there is a seperate blog dealing with the defenses to Homicide, if you have any qustions as to those defenses feel free to look at those blogs

or give us a call at 559 441-1418.  



Under proposition 57 there were several Juvenile Justice reforms that were put into place.  However, lawmakers in California have introduced a series of criminal justice reform bills in the hope of keeping more juveniles out of prison.  The proposed measures would require minors to speak with an Attorney before waiving there rights during interrogations. , eleminating incarcerating minors under 12-years-old and ban life sentences without the possibility of parole

These laws have not been approved if approved reforms would change how the court treats juveniles charged with a crime.   For example instead of incarcerating Juveniles in the juvenile justice facilities or commonly called juvenile halls the child welfare services would be called into to deal with those children. 

Incarceration rates nationwide for most children has dropped nationwide and locally.  Juges can now take into consideration not only the circumstances of the crime but also take into account other factors such as mental development, education, and home life.

These could help the kids that come through the system get the best oppurtunity at changing there lives.

If your child has been arrested give us a call so we can help you through this difficult time.

If you have been arrested for Domestic Violence whether as a Felony or a Misdemeanor you should call our office immediately.  As discusssed in some of our earlier blogs.  There could be a many issues wich affect your case and your ability to mount a defense.  If you wait until charges are filed, or until you have court you could be making serious mistakes which could affect your ability to defend yourself in court. 

After reading this article give us a call if you have any questions 559-441-1418.


Mutual combat is a fight into which both parties enter willingly, or in which two persons, upon a sudden quarrel, in hot blood mutually fight upon equel terms.

There is a Jury instruction that deals with this issue.

A person who engages in mutual combat or who is the first one to use physical force has a right to self defense only if:

1. he or she actually in good faith ties to stop fighting


He/or she indicates by word or by conduct, to his or her opponnent, in a way that a reasonable person would understand, that he or she wants to stop fighting and that he or she wants to stop fighting and that he or she has stopped fighting.

and he or she gives there opponent a chance to stop fighting.

if a person meets these requirements, he or she then has a right to self defense if the opponent continues to fight.

This defense is obviously problematic and difficult.  Officers are trained to arrest the "primary aggressor" in domestic violence calls.  In fact this is codified in Penal Code section 1370 (B) discourages the dual arrest of both parties and seeks to arrest the primary aggressor. This will be intermingled with the Mutual combat scenerior and make

this defense more difficult but not impossible.

it is difficult to sort out who is the primary aggressor in many of these situations.  So many times the officers and even prosecutors call a case "mutual combat" this can be to your advantage if both parties have injuries and it is difficult to determine the first or the primary aggressor.  


Mutual combat is the situation where you have two evenly matched individuals agreeing to a fight much like in the old westerns. The gunfighters agree to go to the center of main street at high noon to shoot it out. 

Most domestic violence situations don't include both parties agreeing to a fight. It is more of a spur of the moment argument full of passion rather than a reasoned fight.

If you have any questions do not hesitate to call.




If you have been arrested for a Felony 273.5 domestic violence offfense it is imperative that you get legal help as quickly as possible.  There will be many factors involved in a domestic violence cases from the beggining.  We have handles hundreds of domestic violence cases in Fresno County alone.  I will personally handle your case. 

If you have questions after reading this article don't hesitate to give us a call. 559441-1418.

You should know that if you have been arrested for domestic violence you may have a restraining order against you but not her.  What this means is that the alleged victim may attempt to contact you which is perfectly legal but you may not speak to her.  This could be a trap, many times the alleged victim will be taping the calls or giving over the text or emails to law enforcement to help in the investigation.  This is one of many different tactics used by law enforcement to attempt to prosecute you for Felony Domestic Violence.

Further, if you bailed out and then contact the victim while there is a restraining order in affect you can have your bail revoked, and charged with violation of the restraining order.  There could also be child custody issues involved.  In other words how do you see your children if there is restraining order in affect?


The elements for the offense are as follows:

1. Defendant willfully (meaning on purpose) inflicted injury on victim.

2. Victim was either:

defendant's spouse or former spouse

person with whom he or she is or was cohibitating with

fiance or someone with whom the offender has, or previously had, an engagement or dating relationship

the mother or father of his or her child

3. Corporeal injury resulted in a traumatic condition.


If you are found guilty or plead guilty of this crime you could be sentenced to state prison for a period  of 2, 3 or 4 years and

you could lose your gun rights for life is you are convicted of a Felony you will not have the right to own or possess a firearm.  Further, if you are found to have inflicted great bodilly injury to the victim you could have a strike offense on your record for future purposes.

In Fresno County you willl be ordered to complet a 52 week batterer treatment program if you are given probation.


YES depending on many circumstances you could be afforded Felony probation such as your prior record, the severity of injuries, and taking responsibility at an early stage in the proceedings among many others.


This is not meant to be a complet list only a partial list there could be many other defenses to this charge.

1.Self defense that at the time you inflicted injury you were defending yourself from attack or somoene else.  Often men and women will be legally defending themselves at the time the injury was caused but because the police show up and there is injury to only one party they arrest the other person.

2. False accusations

Sometimes people get injured from something and then just make up a false accusation to make sure the other party is arrested.  We have even seen where someoene injured themselves and called police.  When emotions are involved many things can happen in domestic violence cases there is many emotions and other things involved. 

If  you have been arrested or think you may be give us a call for a case evaluation.




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Gerald Schwab, Jr.


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Law Office of Gerald Schwab, Jr.
Fresno Criminal Defense Attorney
5588 N Palm Ave,
Fresno, CA 93704
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Phone: 559.441.1418